Reaction To Jobs Vs. DRM !!EXCLUSIVE!!
The statement to be found on the Apple web site including a call to abandon DRM in music, is a direct reaction to the rising anti-Apple tide in Europe. Steve Jobs clearly wants to remove any thought that DRM is an invention of Apple.
Reaction To Jobs Vs. DRM
Although the open letter initially caused mixed industry reactions, Apple signed a deal with a major record label the following month to offer iTunes customers a purchase option for a higher-quality, DRM-free version of the label's tracks.
Jobs' letter was met with mixed reactions. Bloomberg highlighted several viewpoints. David Pakman, President of non-DRM music retailer eMusic, agreed with Jobs, stating that "consumers prefer a world where the media they purchase is playable on any device, regardless of its manufacturer, and is not burdened by arbitrary usage restrictions. DRM only serves to restrict consumer choice, prevents a larger digital music market from emerging, and often makes consumers unwitting accomplices to the ambitions of technology companies". Mike Bebel, CEO of music subscription service Ruckus, explained his view that the letter was an effort to shift focus, saying that "This is a way for Steve Jobs to take the heat off the fact that he won't open up his proprietary DRM. ... The labels have every right to protect their content, and I don't see it as a vow of good partnership to turn the tables on the labels and tell them they should just get rid of all DRM... He is trying to spin the controversy." An anonymous music label executive said that "it's ironic that the guy who has the most successful example of DRM at every step of the process, the one where people bought boatloads of music last Christmas, is suddenly changing his tune". In an article from The New York Times, Ted Cohen, managing partner at TAG Strategic, commented that the change could be "a clear win for the consumer electronics device world, but a potential disaster for the content companies". The Recording Industry Association of America put particular emphasis on Jobs' self-rejected idea about licensing its FairPlay technology to other companies, saying that such licensing would be "a welcome breakthrough and would be a real victory for fans, artists and labels".
Abstract:Encapsulation of metal nanoparticles is a leading technique used to inhibit the main deactivation mechanisms in dry reforming of methane reaction (DRM): Carbon formation and Sintering. Ni catalysts (15%) supported on alumina (Al2O3) and ceria (CeO2) have shown they are no exception to this analysis. The alumina supported catalysts experienced graphitic carbonaceous deposits, whilst the ceria showed considerable sintering over 15 h of DRM reaction. The effect of encapsulation compared to that of the performance of uncoated catalysts for DRM reaction has been examined at different temperatures, before conducting longer stability tests. The encapsulation of Ni/ZnO cores in silica (SiO2) leads to advantageous conversion of both CO2 and CH4 at high temperatures compared to its uncoated alternatives. This work showcases the significance of the encapsulation process and its overall effects on the catalytic performance in chemical CO2 recycling via DRM.Keywords: CO2 utilisation; DRM; Ni catalysts; yolk-shell
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Galaxy is designed to run jobs on your local system by default, but it can be configured to run jobs on a cluster. The front-end Galaxy application runs on a single server as usual, but tools are run on cluster nodes instead.
Installing and configuring your cluster hardware and management software is outside the scope of this document (and specific to each site). That said, a few pitfalls commonly encountered when trying to get the user Galaxy runs as (referred to in this documentation as galaxy_user) able to run jobs on the DRM are addressed here:
This documentation covers configuration of the various runner plugins, not how to distribute jobs to the various plugins. Consult the job configuration file documentation for full details on the correct syntax, and for instructions on how to configure tools to actually use the runners explained below.
Runs jobs via any DRM which supports the Distributed Resource Management Application API. Most commonly used to interface with PBS Professional, Sun Grid Engine, Univa Grid Engine, Spectrum LSF, and SLURM.
Limitations: The DRMAA runner does not work if Galaxy is configured to run jobs as real user, because in this setting jobs are submitted with an external script, i.e. in an extra DRMAA session, and the session based (python) DRMAA library can only query jobs within the session in which started them. Furthermore, the DRMAA job runner only distinguishes successful and failed jobs and ignores information about possible failure sources, e.g. runtime / memory violation, which could be used for job resubmission. Specialized job runners are abvailable that are not affected by these limitations, e.g. univa and slurm runners.
TORQUE: The DRMAA runner can also be used (instead of the PBS runner) to submit jobs to TORQUE, however, problems have been reported when using the libdrmaa.so provided with TORQUE. Using this library will result in a segmentation fault when the drmaa runner attempts to write the job template, and any native job runner options will not be passed to the DRM. Instead, you should compile the pbs-drmaa library and use this as the value for $DRMAA_LIBRARY_PATH.
Slurm: You will need to install slurm-drmaa. In production on usegalaxy.org we observed pthread deadlocks in slurm-drmaa that would cause Galaxy job handlers to eventually stop processing jobs until the handler was restarted. Compiling slurm-drmaa using the compiler flags -g -O0 (keep debugging symbols, disable optimization) caused the deadlock to disappear.
Unlike the DRMAA runner which uses only drmaa.job_status to query jobs the Univa runner uses drmaa.job_status and drmaa.wait if possible and if this fails (e.g. in a real user setting) qstat and qacct to query jobs.